Chapter 2—Ground Operations

Table of Contents
Visual Inspection
    Inside the Cockpit
    Outer Wing Surfaces and Tail Section
    Fuel and Oil
    Landing Gear, Tires, and Brakes
    Engine and Propeller
Cockpit Management
Ground Operations
Engine Starting
Hand Propping
Before Takeoff Check
After Landing
Clear of Runway
Engine Shutdown
Securing and Servicing


The specific procedures for engine starting will not be discussed here since there are as many different methods as there are different engines, fuel systems, and starting conditions. The before engine starting and engine starting checklist procedures should be followed. There are, however, certain precautions that apply to all airplanes.

Some pilots have started the engine with the tail of the airplane pointed toward an open hangar door, parked automobiles, or a group of bystanders. This is not only discourteous, but may result in personal injury and damage to the property of others. Propeller blast can be surprisingly powerful.

When ready to start the engine, the pilot should look in all directions to be sure that nothing is or will be in the vicinity of the propeller. This includes nearby persons and aircraft that could be struck by the propeller blast or the debris it might pick up from the ground. The anticollision light should be turned on prior to engine start, even during daytime operations. At night, the position (navigation) lights should also be on.

The pilot should always call “CLEAR” out of the side window and wait for a response from persons who may be nearby before activating the starter.

When activating the starter, one hand should be kept on the throttle. This allows prompt response if the engine falters during starting, and allows the pilot to rapidly retard the throttle if revolutions per minute (r.p.m.) are excessive after starting. A low r.p.m. setting (800 to 1,000) is recommended immediately following engine start. It is highly undesirable to allow the r.p.m. to race immediately after start, as there will be insufficient lubrication until the oil pressure rises. In freezing temperatures, the engine will also be exposed to potential mechanical distress until it warms and normal internal operating clearances are assumed.

As soon as the engine is operating smoothly, the oil pressure should be checked. If it does not rise to the manufacturer’s specified value, the engine may not be receiving proper lubrication and should be shut down immediately to prevent serious damage.

Although quite rare, the starter motor may remain on and engaged after the engine starts. This can be detected by a continuous very high current draw on the ammeter. Some airplanes also have a starter engaged warning light specifically for this purpose. The engine should be shut down immediately should this occur.

Starters are small electric motors designed to draw large amounts of current for short periods of cranking. Should the engine fail to start readily, avoid continuous starter operation for periods longer than 30 seconds without a cool down period of at least 30 seconds to a minute (some AFM/POH specify even longer). Their service life is drastically shortened from high heat through overuse.

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Copyright 2012
PED Publication