Chapter 6—Ground Reference Maneuvers

Purpose and Scope
Maneuvering By Reference to Ground Objects
Drift and Ground Track Control
Rectangular Course
S-Turns Across a Road
Turns Around a Point
Elementary Eights
    Eights Along a Road
    Eights Across a Road
    Eights Around Pylons
    Eights-On-Pylons (Pylon Eights)
Table of Contents


An eight along a road is a maneuver in which the ground track consists of two complete adjacent circles of equal radii on each side of a straight road or other reference line on the ground. The ground track resembles a figure 8. [Figure 6-7 on next page]

Like the other ground reference maneuvers, its objective is to develop division of attention while

Eights along a road

Figure 6-7. Eights along a road.

compensating for drift, maintaining orientation with ground references, and maintaining a constant altitude.

Although eights along a road may be performed with the wind blowing parallel to the road or directly across the road, for simplification purposes, only the latter situation is explained since the principles involved in either case are common.

A reference line or road which is perpendicular to the wind should be selected and the airplane flown parallel to and directly above the road. Since the wind is blowing across the flightpath, the airplane will require some wind correction angle to stay directly above the road during the initial straight and level portion. Before starting the maneuver, the area should be checked to ensure clearance of obstructions and avoidance of other aircraft.

Usually, the first turn should be made toward a downwind heading starting with a medium bank. Since the airplane will be turning more and more directly downwind, the groundspeed will be gradually increasing and the rate of departing the road will tend to become faster. Thus, the bank and rate of turn is increased to establish a wind correction angle to keep the airplane from exceeding the desired distance from the road when 180° of change in direction is completed. The steepest bank is attained when the airplane is headed directly downwind.

As the airplane completes 180° of change in direction, it will be flying parallel to and using a wind correction angle toward the road with the wind acting directly perpendicular to the ground track. At this point, the pilot should visualize the remaining 180° of ground track required to return to the same place over the road from which the maneuver started.

While the turn is continued toward an upwind heading, the wind will tend to keep the airplane from reaching the road, with a decrease in groundspeed and rate of closure. The rate of turn and wind correction angle are decreased proportionately so that the road will be reached just as the 360° turn is completed. To accomplish this, the bank is decreased so that when headed directly upwind, it will be at the shallowest angle. In the last 90° of the turn, the bank may be varied to correct any previous errors in judging the returning rate and closure rate. The rollout should be timed so that the airplane will be straight and level over the starting point, with enough drift correction to hold it over the road.

After momentarily flying straight and level along the road, the airplane is then rolled into a medium bank turn in the opposite direction to begin the circle on the upwind side of the road. The wind will still be decreasing the groundspeed and trying to drift the airplane back toward the road; therefore, the bank must be decreased slowly during the first 90° change in direction in order to reach the desired distance from the road and attain the proper wind correction angle when 180° change in direction has been completed.

As the remaining 180° of turn continues, the wind becomes more of a tailwind and increases the airplane’s groundspeed. This causes the rate of closure to become faster; consequently, the angle of bank and rate of turn must be increased further to attain sufficient wind correction angle to keep the airplane from approaching the road too rapidly. The bank will be at its steepest angle when the airplane is headed directly downwind.

In the last 90° of the turn, the rate of turn should be reduced to bring the airplane over the starting point on the road. The rollout must be timed so the airplane will be straight and level, turned into the wind, and flying parallel to and over the road.

The measure of a student’s progress in the performance of eights along a road is the smoothness and accuracy of the change in bank used to counteract drift. The sooner the drift is detected and correction applied, the smaller will be the required changes. The more quickly the student can anticipate the corrections needed, the less obvious the changes will be and the more attention can be diverted to the maintenance of altitude and operation of the airplane.

Errors in coordination must be eliminated and a constant altitude maintained. Flying technique must not be allowed to suffer from the fact that the student’s attention is diverted. This technique should improve as the student becomes able to divide attention between the operation of the airplane controls and following a designated flightpath.

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PED Publication