Chapter 4—Slow Flight, Stalls, and Spins

Table of Contents
Slow Flight
    Flight at Less than Cruise Airspeeds
    Flight at Minimum Controllable Airspeed
    Recognition of Stalls
    Fundamentals of Stall Recovery
    Use of Ailerons/Rudder in Stall Recovery
    Stall Characteristics
    Approaches to Stalls (Imminent Stalls)—Power-On or Power-Off
    Full Stalls Power-Off
    Full Stalls Power-On
    Secondary Stall
    Accelerated Stalls
    Cross-Control Stall
    Elevator Trim Stall
    Spin Procedures
        Entry Phase
        Incipient Phase
        Developed Phase
        Recovery Phase
Intentional Spins
    Weight and Balance Requirements


Power-on stall recoveries are practiced from straight climbs, and climbing turns with 15 to 20° banks, to simulate an accidental stall occurring during takeoffs and climbs. Airplanes equipped with flaps and/or retractable landing gear should normally be in the takeoff configuration; however, power-on stalls should also be practiced with the airplane in a clean configuration (flaps and/or gear retracted) as in departure and normal climbs.

After establishing the takeoff or climb configuration, the airplane should be slowed to the normal lift-off speed while clearing the area for other air traffic. When the desired speed is attained, the power should be set at takeoff power for the takeoff stall or the recommended climb power for the departure stall while establishing a climb attitude. The purpose of reducing the airspeed to lift-off airspeed before the throttle is advanced to the recommended setting is to avoid an excessively steep nose-up attitude for a long period before the airplane stalls.

After the climb attitude is established, the nose is then brought smoothly upward to an attitude obviously impossible for the airplane to maintain and is held at that attitude until the full stall occurs. In most airplanes, after attaining the stalling attitude, the elevator control must be moved progressively further back as the airspeed decreases until, at the full stall, it will have reached its limit and cannot be moved back any farther.

Recovery from the stall should be accomplished by immediately reducing the angle of attack by positively

Power-on stall

Figure 4-6. Power-on stall.

releasing back-elevator pressure and, in the case of a departure stall, smoothly advancing the throttle to maximum allowable power. In this case, since the throttle is already at the climb power setting, the addition of power will be relatively slight. [Figure 4-6]

The nose should be lowered as necessary to regain flying speed with the minimum loss of altitude and then raised to climb attitude. Then, the airplane should be returned to the normal straight-and-level flight attitude, and when in normal level flight, the throttle should be returned to cruise power setting. The pilot must recognize instantly when the stall has occurred and take prompt action to prevent a prolonged stalled condition.

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Copyright 2012
PED Publication