Chapter 4—Slow Flight, Stalls, and Spins

Table of Contents
Slow Flight
    Flight at Less than Cruise Airspeeds
    Flight at Minimum Controllable Airspeed
    Recognition of Stalls
    Fundamentals of Stall Recovery
    Use of Ailerons/Rudder in Stall Recovery
    Stall Characteristics
    Approaches to Stalls (Imminent Stalls)—Power-On or Power-Off
    Full Stalls Power-Off
    Full Stalls Power-On
    Secondary Stall
    Accelerated Stalls
    Cross-Control Stall
    Elevator Trim Stall
    Spin Procedures
        Entry Phase
        Incipient Phase
        Developed Phase
        Recovery Phase
Intentional Spins
    Weight and Balance Requirements


The elevator trim stall maneuver shows what can happen when full power is applied for a go-around and positive control of the airplane is not maintained. [Figure 4-8] Such a situation may occur during a go-around procedure from a normal landing approach

 Elevator trim stall

Figure 4-8. Elevator trim stall.

or a simulated forced landing approach, or immediately after a takeoff. The objective of the demonstration is to show the importance of making smooth power applications, overcoming strong trim forces and maintaining positive control of the airplane to hold safe flight attitudes, and using proper and timely trim techniques.

At a safe altitude and after ensuring that the area is clear of other air traffic, the pilot should slowly retard the throttle and extend the landing gear (if retractable gear). One-half to full flaps should be lowered, the throttle closed, and altitude maintained until the airspeed approaches the normal glide speed. When the normal glide is established, the airplane should be trimmed for the glide just as would be done during a landing approach (nose-up trim).

During this simulated final approach glide, the throttle is then advanced smoothly to maximum allowable power as would be done in a go-around procedure. The combined forces of thrust, torque, and back-elevator trim will tend to make the nose rise sharply and turn to the left.

When the throttle is fully advanced and the pitch attitude increases above the normal climbing attitude and it is apparent that a stall is approaching, adequate forward pressure must be applied to return the airplane to the normal climbing attitude. While holding the airplane in this attitude, the trim should then be adjusted to relieve the heavy control pressures and the normal go-around and level-off procedures completed.

The pilot should recognize when a stall is approaching, and take prompt action to prevent a completely stalled condition. It is imperative that a stall not occur during an actual go-around from a landing approach.

Common errors in the performance of intentional stalls are:

  • Failure to adequately clear the area.
  • Inability to recognize an approaching stall condition through feel for the airplane.
  • Premature recovery.
  • Over-reliance on the airspeed indicator while excluding other cues.
  • Inadequate scanning resulting in an unintentional wing-low condition during entry.
  • Excessive back-elevator pressure resulting in an exaggerated nose-up attitude during entry.
  • Inadequate rudder control.
  • Inadvertent secondary stall during recovery.
  • Failure to maintain a constant bank angle during turning stalls.
  • Excessive forward-elevator pressure during recovery resulting in negative load on the wings.
  • Excessive airspeed buildup during recovery.
  • Failure to take timely action to prevent a full stall during the conduct of imminent stalls.

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Copyright 2012
PED Publication