Chapter 15-Transition to Jet Powered Airplanes

Table of Contents
Jet Engine Basics
Operating the Jet Engine
Jet Engine Ignition
Continuous Ignition
Fuel Heaters
Setting Power
Thrust to Thrust Lever Relationship
Variation of Thrust with RPM
Slow Acceleration of the Jet Engine
Jet Engine Efficiency
Absence of Propeller Effect
Absence of Propeller Slipstream
Absence of Propeller Drag
Speed Margins
Recovery from Overspeed Conditions
Mach Buffet Boundaries
Low Speed Flight
Drag Devices
Thrust Reversers
Pilot Sensations in Jet Flying
Jet Airplane Takeoff and Climb
Pre-Takeoff Procedures
Takeoff Roll
Rotation and Lift-Off
Initial Climb
Jet Airplane Approach and Landing
Landing Requirements
Landing Speeds
Significant Differences
The Stabilized Approach
Approach Speed
Glidepath Control
The Flare
Touchdown and Rollout


The simplest remedy for an overspeed condition is to ensure that the situation never occurs in the first place. For this reason, the pilot must be aware of all the conditions that could lead to exceeding the airplaneÆs maximum operating speeds. Good attitude instrument flying skills and good power control are essential.

The pilot should be aware of the symptoms that will be experienced in the particular airplane as the VMO or MMO is being approached. These may include:
  • ò Nosedown tendency and need for back pressure or trim.
  • ò Mild buffeting as airflow separation begins to occur after critical Mach speed.
  • ò Actuation of an aural warning device/stick puller at or just slightly beyond VMO or MMO.

The pilotÆs response to an overspeed condition should be to immediately slow the airplane by reducing the power to flight idle. It will also help to smoothly and easily raise the pitch attitude to help dissipate speed (in fact this is done automatically through the stick puller device when the high speed warning system is activated). The use of speed brakes can also aid in slowing the airplane. If, however, the nosedown stick forces have progressed to the extent that they are excessive, some speed brakes will tend to further aggravate the nosedown tendency. Under most conditions, this additional pitch down force is easily controllable, and since speed brakes can normally be used at any speed, they are a very real asset. A final option would be to extend the landing gear. This will create enormous drag and possibly some noseup pitch, but there is usually little risk of damage to the gear itself. The pilot transitioning into jet airplanes must be familiar with the manufacturersÆ recommended procedures for dealing with overspeed conditions contained in the FAA-approved Airplane Flight Manual for the particular make and model airplane.


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PED Publication