Chapter 15-Transition to Jet Powered Airplanes

Table of Contents
Jet Engine Basics
Operating the Jet Engine
Jet Engine Ignition
Continuous Ignition
Fuel Heaters
Setting Power
Thrust to Thrust Lever Relationship
Variation of Thrust with RPM
Slow Acceleration of the Jet Engine
Jet Engine Efficiency
Absence of Propeller Effect
Absence of Propeller Slipstream
Absence of Propeller Drag
Speed Margins
Recovery from Overspeed Conditions
Mach Buffet Boundaries
Low Speed Flight
Drag Devices
Thrust Reversers
Pilot Sensations in Jet Flying
Jet Airplane Takeoff and Climb
Pre-Takeoff Procedures
Takeoff Roll
Rotation and Lift-Off
Initial Climb
Jet Airplane Approach and Landing
Landing Requirements
Landing Speeds
Significant Differences
The Stabilized Approach
Approach Speed
Glidepath Control
The Flare
Touchdown and Rollout


On final approach, at a constant airspeed, the glidepath angle and rate of descent is controlled with pitch attitude and elevator. The optimum glidepath angle is 2.5 to 3 whether or not an electronic glidepath reference is being used. On visual approaches, pilots may have a tendency to make flat approaches. A flat approach, however, will increase landing distance and should be avoided. For example, an approach angle of 2 instead of a recommended 3 will add 500 feet to landing distance.

A more common error is excessive height over the threshold. This could be the result of an unstable approach, or a stable but high approach. It also may occur during an instrument approach where the missed approach point is close to or at the runway threshold. Regardless of the cause, excessive height over the threshold will most likely result in a touchdown beyond the normal aiming point. An extra 50 feet of height over the threshold will add approximately 1,000 feet to the landing distance. It is essential that the airplane arrive at the approach threshold window exactly on altitude (50 feet above the runway).

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PED Publication