Chapter 15-Transition to Jet Powered Airplanes

Table of Contents
Jet Engine Basics
Operating the Jet Engine
Jet Engine Ignition
Continuous Ignition
Fuel Heaters
Setting Power
Thrust to Thrust Lever Relationship
Variation of Thrust with RPM
Slow Acceleration of the Jet Engine
Jet Engine Efficiency
Absence of Propeller Effect
Absence of Propeller Slipstream
Absence of Propeller Drag
Speed Margins
Recovery from Overspeed Conditions
Mach Buffet Boundaries
Low Speed Flight
Drag Devices
Thrust Reversers
Pilot Sensations in Jet Flying
Jet Airplane Takeoff and Climb
Pre-Takeoff Procedures
Takeoff Roll
Rotation and Lift-Off
Initial Climb
Jet Airplane Approach and Landing
Landing Requirements
Landing Speeds
Significant Differences
The Stabilized Approach
Approach Speed
Glidepath Control
The Flare
Touchdown and Rollout


Once the proper pitch attitude is attained, it must be maintained. The initial climb after lift-off is done at this constant pitch attitude. Takeoff power is maintained and the airspeed allowed to accelerate. Landing gear retraction should be accomplished after a positive rate of climb has been established and confirmed. Remember that in some airplanes gear retraction may temporarily increase the airplane drag while landing gear doors open. Premature gear retraction may cause the airplane to settle back towards the runway surface. Remember also that because of ground effect, the vertical speed indicator and the altimeter may not show a positive climb until the airplane is 35 to 50 feet above the runway.

The climb pitch attitude should continue to be held and the airplane allowed to accelerate to flap retraction speed. However, the flaps should not be retracted until obstruction clearance altitude or 400 feet AGL has been passed. Ground effect and landing gear drag reduction results in rapid acceleration during this phase of the takeoff and climb. Airspeed, altitude, climb rate, attitude, and heading must be monitored carefully. When the airplane settles down to a steady climb, longitudinal stick forces can be trimmed out. If a turn must be made during this phase of flight, no more than 15 to 20 of bank should be used. Because of spiral instability, and because at this point an accurate trim state on rudder and ailerons has not yet been achieved, the bank angle should be carefully monitored throughout the turn. If a power reduction must be made, pitch attitude should be reduced simultaneously and the airplane monitored carefully so as to preclude entry into an inadvertent descent. When the airplane has attained a steady climb at the appropriate en route climb speed, it can be trimmed about all axes and the autopilot engaged.

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