Chapter 15-Transition to Jet Powered Airplanes

Table of Contents
Jet Engine Basics
Operating the Jet Engine
Jet Engine Ignition
Continuous Ignition
Fuel Heaters
Setting Power
Thrust to Thrust Lever Relationship
Variation of Thrust with RPM
Slow Acceleration of the Jet Engine
Jet Engine Efficiency
Absence of Propeller Effect
Absence of Propeller Slipstream
Absence of Propeller Drag
Speed Margins
Recovery from Overspeed Conditions
Mach Buffet Boundaries
Low Speed Flight
Drag Devices
Thrust Reversers
Pilot Sensations in Jet Flying
Jet Airplane Takeoff and Climb
Pre-Takeoff Procedures
Takeoff Roll
Rotation and Lift-Off
Initial Climb
Jet Airplane Approach and Landing
Landing Requirements
Landing Speeds
Significant Differences
The Stabilized Approach
Approach Speed
Glidepath Control
The Flare
Touchdown and Rollout


On final approach, the airspeed is controlled with power. Any speed diversion from VREF on final approach must be detected immediately and corrected. With experience the pilot will be able to detect the very first tendency of an increasing or decreasing airspeed trend, which normally can be corrected with a small adjustment in thrust. The pilot must be attentive to poor speed stability leading to a low speed condition with its attendant risk of high drag increasing the sink rate. Remember that with an increasing sink rate an apparently normal pitch attitude is no guarantee of a normal angle of attack value. If an increasing sink rate is detected, it must be countered by increasing the angle of attack and simultaneously increasing thrust to counter the extra drag. The degree of correction required will depend on how much the sink rate needs to be reduced. For small amounts, smooth and gentle, almost anticipatory corrections will be sufficient. For large sink rates, drastic corrective measures may be required that, even if successful, would destabilize the approach.

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A common error in the performance of approaches in jet airplanes is excess approach speed. Excess approach speed carried through the threshold window and onto the runway will increase the minimum stopping distance required by 20 û 30 feet per knot of excess speed for a dry runway and 40 û 50 feet for a wet runway. Worse yet, the excess speed will increase the chances of an extended flare, which will increase the distance to touchdown by approximately 250 feet for each excess knot in speed.

Proper speed control on final approach is of primary importance. The pilot must anticipate the need for speed adjustment so that only small adjustments are required. It is essential that the airplane arrive at the approach threshold window exactly on speed.

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PED Publication